关于ZAKER 一起剪 合作 加入

安德里亚 · 阿诺德谈《奶牛》:唤醒人类内心深处的认知和动物性

第五届西湖国际纪录片大会 / The 5th West Lake International Documentary Festival(简称 "IDF2021")是集纪录片推优、提案、展播、论坛、工作坊于一体的高品质人文艺术平台。本届年度主题为 " 感 · 知 ",将于2021 年 10 月 22 日 -25 日在杭州西子湖畔举行。

本届西湖国际纪录片大会的开幕片是由导演安德里亚 · 阿诺德带来的纪录长片《奶牛》。这是一部直白、细腻且残酷的纪录片。我们通过摄影机看到作为人类生产工具的母牛,是如何度过她的一生。

以下为导演创作手记。

奶牛

Cow

英国|94 分钟

《奶牛》海报

文|安德里亚 · 阿诺德(Andrea Arnold)阐述

* 本文中所使用的剧照和预告片由和观映像独家授权

每当在生活中感到烦恼、迷失或不堪重负时,我会从自然中寻求慰藉。它总能让我不务空名,再次找回自己。

就像一些先天观念,这是自然形成的,并非后天习得。而其中一个原因是,我的童年过得无拘无束,自由自在。妈妈在 16 岁时生下我,22 岁的时候已有四个孩子,爸爸只比她大几岁。我幼年时,就很少见到他;等我长到 10 岁,他更是彻底地消失了。

《奶牛》剧照

于是乎,在绝大部分的童年时光里,我在北肯特郡一处庄园中,过着神奇的散养式生活。庄园四周是无尽的荒野,我很小的时候就跑出去玩耍,一呆就是一天,想去哪儿就去哪儿。其他人家的庄园、白垩矿坑、废弃的老工业区、树林和高速公路,都是我的地盘。外出探险让我爱上了各种动植物——昆虫、鸟类、住家附近的流浪狗、旅行者拴在高速公路旁的小马、弹坑废墟积水中的游鱼和青蛙、生长在矿坑边的野草莓……关于这些地方的记忆依旧生动,那些熟悉的气味、声音、感觉和颜色仍然鲜活。

我们养宠物,很多很多只宠物。还可以随便把动物带回家,根本没人管。记得那是八九岁的时候,有一天,我走进一栋房子,发现里面有一窝小狗。其中有一只很瘦小,我觉得很可怜,就把他带回了家。我没向任何人征求意见,只是觉得可以带他回家。狗狗和我们一样,喜欢闲逛。我们从没给他戴过狗链或是项圈,我家的狗全都是散养的。他按照自己的意志行事,惹了一大堆的麻烦。

导演安德里亚 · 阿诺德(Andrea Arnold)旧照

我们真的很爱家里的动物,但它们都是误打误撞来的这里,我们照看动物的方式也没走寻常路。比方说,不把沙鼠关在笼子里,而是让它们在衣柜的抽屉中定居——套头衫、内衣、沙鼠,共享空间。我爸爸有时会去伦敦的布里克巷市场卖货。有一次,他带着我一起去,我看见一个摊主在卖一只小羊羔, 撤摊回家之前,我发现小羊羔还没卖出去,在我的央求下,爸爸同意把它带回家。小羊羔靠吃后院蔓生的杂草,长了个大个儿。它也常常宅在家里,如果有人敲门,就咩咩大叫。

18 岁那年,我离家去了伦敦,生活也随之发生了翻天覆地的变化。城市的繁忙和成年人肩上的重担,改变了我与自然的关系。在城市中,自然并非触手可及。我不断地寻找着,因为它关系到我生活的根本。我学会了开车,开出城市。我还养了一条从街上捡回来的流浪狗,也养过猫。我想,我的生活虽然越来越忙碌,但与外界的联系却反倒在减少。有时,你会觉得大自然就 " 在那里 "。坐在火车上或从汽车里眺望窗外时,总有莫名的失落感、抽离感。

《奶牛》剧照

赶路途中,在窗外最常出现的动物就是奶牛。它们在绿油油的牧场上吃草。宁静安详的田园风光,浪漫得像一幅画。我想知道,奶牛们真实的生活究竟是什么样的。在好奇心的驱使下,我拍摄了这部纪录片。奶牛对我们而言是如此重要,给予人类很多很多,但我并不了解它们。是的,我投入了那个熟悉的场景,以观察奶牛们的真实生活。

在本片开拍前,几位国际知名的科学家签署了《剑桥意识宣言》,宣告动物有意识,且感知程度与人类相当。 他们表示已有确凿的证据。

这意味着什么呢?动物们能像人类一样,感知痛苦、恐惧、欲望、愤怒、喜爱、失落、沮丧吗?它们有同理心和意念吗?是独立的个体吗?是否有不同的个性?所有我接触过的动物,都让我觉得它们的确有不同的好恶和怪癖。那么人类食用的动物呢?奶牛呢?我在想,如果我们观察一头奶牛足够久,是否会有所收获?我完全不想试着去揣测她的想法,或暗示她拥有人类的情感。我只想静静地观察奶牛的日常生活,记录其中的美好、挑战和残酷。去观察、去看见——看见她。

奶牛辛勤地工作,不是生小牛,就是产奶,一辈子都在做母亲。奶牛一生可能会产 10 到 20 只小牛。可是,每次小牛出生不久就会被带走,这样母牛的奶才可以为人类所享用。

导演(Andrea Arnold )近照

记得有一次,我在丹麦的海边看到很多水母搁浅在沙滩上,奄奄一息。我花了挺久的时间,用小木棍把它们拨回水中。一对挽手走过的夫妇观望了一会儿,说道:" 你不该插手,就让它们自生自灭好了,这是自然法则 "。我想都没想,便回答说:" 我知道,可我也是大自然的一部分,我偏要让它们回到水里 "。

人类是自然,是动物。即使占据食物链顶端,我们依然是动物,保留着许多动物的本能。 可是,对这一点的否认和抽离,似乎正让人类处于愈加危险的境地。这个世界除了人之外,还有无数的生灵。与它们的关系关乎我们的生存。为了引发更多的关注和参与,我拍摄了此片。

我觉得,童年的散养闲逛和对动物的爱,是非常本能、自然和诚实的。 没有人约束我的行为,于是我便遵从自己的表达。儿时与大自然建立的关系不仅是场浪漫奇遇,我完全投入其中。快乐与痛苦并存,真实不虚。

我希望《奶牛》能对每一位观众产生一些影响,让他们不仅仅是和奶牛,或是其他有意识的生物建立联结,而是唤醒内心深处的认知和动物本性——我们每个人,与世间所有的生灵彼此相连。

导演(Andrea Arnold )在第 74 届戛纳电影节

Whenever I have felt troubled or lost or overwhelmed with life, I have always sought nature. It has always grounded me and put me in touch with myself again.

No one taught me this. It came quite naturally. Like some innate knowledge. Partly I think because I had a very free childhood. My Mum had me very young, at sixteen, and three siblings followed by the time she was twenty-two. My Dad was only a few years older. I never saw him that much in my early years and he was gone completely by time I was ten.

So unsupervised most of the time I lived a fantastically wild life. I grew up in North Kent on an estate surrounded by liminal wilderness. From early on I played out and would spend entire days roaming wherever the fancy took me. Between estates and chalk pits and deserted old industrial spaces and woods and motorways. Out of this grew a deep love of insects and birds and animals and plants. Stray estate dogs, the traveler ponies chained by the motorway, the fish and frogs in the water filled bomb site, wild strawberries on the banks of the chalk pits. I can conjure up these places vividly now. The smells and sounds and feels and colours.

We had pets. Lots. No one really stopped us bringing animals home. One day when I was eight or so I went into a house where there was a litter of puppies. I felt sorry for the tiny runt so took him home. I didn ’ t ask anyone if I could. I just assumed I could. Like us he roamed. Never owned a lead or collar ever. None of our dogs did. He did his own thing and got into a whole load of trouble. But that is another story.

We really loved our animals but none arrived in a conventional way or got cared for in a conventional way. I had gerbils but didn ’ t have a cage so they lived in a clothes drawer. Jumpers, underwear, gerbils. My dad sometimes sold stuff in Brick Lane Market in London. One time he took me with him and someone was selling a lamb that no one wanted. As we were leaving I pleaded for it and we took it home. It grew huge living on our overgrown, backyard grass. And was often in the house too. Baaing if anyone knocked on the door.

I left home at 18 to live in London. Life changed dramatically in many ways. The city and pressures of adult life changed my relationship with nature. It wasn ’ t so immediate or accessible in the city. I continued to seek it as it mattered to me in a fundamental way. I learned to drive and drove out to it. Kept a stray dog I found in the street. Had cats. But I guess as I got busier with life I began to feel less connected. Nature sometimes felt like something that was ‘ over there ’ . I would gaze out of train and car windows on my way somewhere feeling a little bereft. Separated.

One of the animals I saw most out of those windows are cows. Cows grazing in green fields. Pastoral, peaceful, romantic. Like a painting. I wondered about the reality of their lives and what that was really like. Making Cow the film emerged fromthat curiosity. Cows are so much part of our lives. They provide us with so much. But I felt disconnected from them. I liked the idea of jumping into that familiar scene. Seeing what their reality really was.

Before we started filming an international and prominent bunch of scientists signed The Cambridge Declaration on Consciousness in which they proclaimed that animals are conscious and aware to the degree that humans are. They said the evidence was overwhelming.

What does that mean? Do they feel pain, fear, desire, anger, affection, loss, frustration, empathy, and intention? Like humans do? Are they individuals? Do they have distinct personalities? In all my relationships with animals they for sure feel like they have distinct likes and dislikes and individual quirks. So what about the animals we use for food? Cows? I wondered if we watched a cow long enough we would see any of this? I didn ’ t want in any way to attempt to get inside her head or suggest human emotions. I just wanted to watch her reactions to her daily reality. In all of its beauty and challenges and brutality. To look. To see. To see her.

Dairy cows work hard. They spend their lives giving birth and making milk. A lifetime of maternal existence. They will bare maybe ten to twenty calves but each time the calf is taken shortly after birth so the milk can be used for us.

One time at the seaside in Denmark I was using a stick to flick beached and still alive jellyfish back in the water. There were lots and it was taking a while. A couple walked by holding hands. Watched me for a while and then said. "You shouldn ’ t bother. Leave them to die. It ’ s nature" I replied without thinking "I know but I ’ m nature too and I ’ m putting them back".

We are nature. We are animals. The top of the food chain. But we are still animals and we have many animal instincts. Denying this, separating ourselves and disconnecting from this is starting to seem more and more at our peril. Our relationship with the millions of non-human lives we use is very much part of our existence. I made Cow to invite engagement with that.

My childish wanderings and love for animals was I think something very instinctive and natural and honest. I wasn ’ t restrained by anyone and so followed my own expression. And my relationship with nature as a kid wasn ’ t just a romantic, whimsical one. It was engaged and immersive. There was both joy and pain. It was real.

I hope this film in some small way can connect anyone who sees it not just to Cows and other non-human conscious animals but to that deep knowing and animal nature in ourselves. That we are all connected to everything living.

奶牛

cow

导演:安德里亚 · 阿诺德

制片人:卡特 · 曼苏尔

制片地区:英国

类型:纪录长片

对白语言:英语

时长:94 min

2021 年戛纳国际电影节 - 戛纳首映

纪录片简介

这部纪录片是对奶牛的思考,让我们离他们更近。看到他们的美丽和生活的挑战。不是以浪漫的方式,而是真实的方式。这部纪录片是关于一只奶牛的真实生活,并感谢她为我们做出的巨大贡献。当我看着露玛,我们的奶牛,我在她身上看到了整个世界。

「导筒」微信号 directube2016

福利 | " 全球电影节官网,VFX&CG 行业网站以及海外流媒体推荐 " 合集资料包分享

推广 / 合作 / 活动

加微信号:directubeee

以上内容由"导筒directube"上传发布
一起剪

一起剪

ZAKER旗下免费视频剪辑工具

一起剪
导筒directube

导筒directube

关于导演的演讲、访谈,电影课

订阅

觉得文章不错,微信扫描分享好友

扫码分享