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译言 2017-06-16

早餐重要吗?

早餐真的重要吗?

Is breakfast really the most important meal of the day? Likemany nutritional scientists, professor and biochemist Terence Kealey doesn ’ t think so. His controversial new book hasreignited the debate

早餐真的是一天中最重要的一餐吗?像很多营养科学家一样,生物化学家特伦斯 · 基莱教授并不这样认为。他备受争议的新书再次激起了辩论。

Why doesbreakfast have its own PR? Nobody tries to encourage us to eat lunch, and asense of disapproval can hang over too large a dinner, but breakfast? Oh, it ’ s the most important meal of the day and we should eat it like aking.

为什么早餐有它自身的影响呢?没人会试图鼓励我们去吃午餐,也并不推崇晚餐吃太多,但是早餐呢?它是一天中最重要的一餐,我们应该吃得像国王一样。

Thewords "breakfast is the most important meal of theday" first appeared a hundred years ago, in 1917, inGood Health, the oldest health magazine in the world, which was edited by ...Dr John Kellogg. Yes that Dr Kellogg, from Michigan, the man who in 1894, withhis brother Will, invented cornflakes.

" 早餐是一天中最重要的一餐 " 这句话最早出现在一百年前,即 1917 年在世界上最古老的健康杂志 Good Health 上,该杂志由约翰 · 凯洛格医生编辑。没错,就是那个来自密歇根的凯洛格医生,他在 1894 年和兄弟威廉发明了玉米片。

Cornflakeswere the original processed food. As Felicity Lawrence wrote in her 2008 bookEat Your Heart Out, to flake the corn "the nutritiousgerm with its essential fats is first removed because, as the Kellogg brothersdiscovered all that time ago, it goes rancid over time and gets in the way oflong shelf life".

玉米片是原始的加工食品。正如费莉希蒂劳伦斯在她 2008 年的书 EatYour Heart Out 中写道,要把玉米加工成薄片," 营养胚芽和它基本的脂肪首先被去除,因为,就像凯洛格兄弟当时发现的一样,它会随着时间推移而变质并缩短保质期 "。

Today,therefore, breakfast cereals are consumed as nutritionally-depleted calorie-and carbohydrate-fests, laden with sugar, starch and milk, and it is hard tothink of a less healthy dish than a pre-packaged industrially- processedready-to-eat cereal to set before the king.Public Health England reported this week that childrenare eating three times as much sugar as they should, and that the rot sets inwith breakfast which, by providing on average the equivalent of three cubes or11 grams of sugar, supplies in itself half the recommended daily intake. Nowonder people suppose that eating the cardboard package would be safer thaneating the carbohydrate cereal.

现在,早餐谷物以营养消耗卡路里和碳水化合物的合成物形式摄入,富含糖、淀粉和牛奶,很难想象它会比摆在国王面前的预包装工业加工的即食谷物更没有营养。这周,英国公共卫生署报告说,儿童摄入的糖是他们本该摄入量的 3 倍,而在早餐中则供给每日推荐摄入量的一半,提供平均相当于 3 块方糖或 11 克糖的摄入量。难怪人们认为吃硬纸包装食物比吃碳水化合谷物更安全。

But bread and honey are no better either,because science shows that morning is a uniquely dangerous time to eat. We wakein the mornings because a hormone called cortisol rises at daybreak, and thoughthis hormone wakes us up, it also raises our blood glucose levels. Nobody knowswhy it does that, yet since raised blood glucose levels are dangerous, andsince most people tend not to be hungry in the mornings, that lack of morninghunger seems to be nature's way of protecting us from a dangerous meal.

面包和蜂蜜也没有那么好,因为科学表明早晨是一个特别危险的进食时间。我们早晨醒来是因为一种叫做皮质醇的激素在黎明时升高,这种激素唤醒了我们的同时,也升高了我们的血糖水平。没人知道为什么会这样,但是血糖水平升高是危险的,而大多数人往往在早上并不饿,所以早晨缺乏饥饿感似乎是保护我们远离危险食物的自然方式。

Idiscovered the dangers of breakfast in 2010 when, at the age of 58, I wasdiagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Anyone can buy inexpensive blood glucosetesting kits at their local chemist, and when I tested my blood glucose levelsI discovered they rose alarmingly after breakfast but only modestly after othermeals. And because I am both a doctor and a biochemist, it was easy for me tofind that the scientific journals had confirmed that danger. Yet those findingsare being ignored by the mass of dieticians, who – likemany scientists and technologists throughout history – seem reluctant to acknowledge their attachment to error. Indeed, the research papers show that breakfast is dangerous foreveryone, not just diabetics.

我在 2010 年发现吃早餐的危险,当时我 58 岁,被诊断出Ⅱ型糖尿病。每个人都可以在当地的药店买到便宜的血糖检测工具,当我测试我的血糖水平时,发现早餐后我的血糖上升得很厉害,但在其他餐后却很轻微。因为我是医生,同时也是生物化学家,我很容易就发现科学期刊已经证实了吃早餐的危险。但是,这些发现却被营养师们忽略了,就像历史上很多科学家和技术专家一样,他们似乎不愿意承认自身对错误的依赖。事实上,研究表明,不仅仅是糖尿病患者,早餐对每个人来说都是危险的。

So, forexample, it is a myth that breakfast induces such fullness or satiety thatpeople eat less at lunch. Every experimental study shows that breakfast onlyadds to the total calories a person consumes. Even worse, because of thecortisol-induced morning spikes in glucose, breakfast can actually fuel hunger,and the consumption of many a mid-morning muffin or mid-afternoon teacake canbe traced back to the metabolic trauma that is breakfast.

因此,早餐会引起饱腹感,从而让人们午餐吃得少一些,这种说法是错误的。每一项实验研究都表明,早餐只会增加一个人需要消耗的总热量。更糟的是,由于皮质醇引起的葡萄糖上午尖峰,早餐可以引起饥饿,从而使人们消耗许多上午或下午茶点心,这可以归咎于早餐代谢性创伤。

Theglobal market for breakfast cereals is huge ( sales are expected to reach$43.2bn annually by 2019 ) and to support their marketing, cereal companies willfund research that purportedly supports the benefits of eating a big meal firstthing. But when researchers do proper science ( ie, actual experiments ) and whenthey test breakfast on people, they find only the consumption of excesscalories.

早餐谷物在全球有很大的市场(到 2019 年,预计销售额将达到每年 432 亿美元),为了支撑他们的市场,谷物食品公司将资助一项研究,据称首先会支持吃大餐的益处。但是,当研究人员进行适当的科学研究时(例如 : 真实实验),当他们在人身上测试早餐时,只发现摄入了过量的卡路里。

Twothirds of the people of North America or Britain are today overweight or obese,and soon no fewer than 10 percent of us will suffer from type 2 diabetes: thatwe should be encouraged to eat an unnecessary meal is, therefore, little shortof a scandal.

如今,有 2/3 的北美人或英国人超重或肥胖,很快我们中多于 10% 的人会患上Ⅱ型糖尿病:我们还被鼓励吃一顿不必要的食物,就几乎是一个丑闻了。

Thereare, of course, people who cannot function without breakfast, just as there arepeople so nauseated by food in the mornings that they will not eat a crumb. Butmost people are malleable about breakfast, which they will eat if instructedbut, equally, which they would skip if instructed. Most people, indeed, if leftalone, would probably fall into the weekend habit of eating only two meals aday, brunch and supper, which is healthier than our current three-meals-a-dayhabit. The Mediterraneans of the Mediterranean Diet, moreover, generally skipbreakfast.

当然,有些人在不吃早餐的情况下无法正常工作,就像有些人早晨对食物感到恶心,他们不会吃一口面包屑。但是大多数人对吃早餐是有适应性的,如果早餐有益,他们会吃,但同样的,如果有害,他们也会不吃。事实上大多数人,如果独自一人,可能会进入周末饮食习惯,即一天只吃两顿饭:早午餐和晚餐。这比我们目前的一日三餐的习惯更健康。此外,保持地中海饮食习惯的地中海人通常跳过早餐。

My bookis directed at people who eat breakfast out of a misplaced sense of biochemicalduty. It is also directed at the minority who believe they cannot functionwithout it because it reveals how they might learn to skip it and so discovermore energy over the course of the day.

我的书是针对那些将吃早餐看做职责的人。同样也针对小部分认为没有早餐不能工作的人,因为它还提供了如何跳过早餐,从而在一天中发挥更多能量。

Breakfast Is A Dangerous Meal by Terence Kealey is outnow, published by 4th Estate.

特伦斯 · 基莱所著《早餐是危险的一餐》现在已经发行第四版了。

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